Rev.Fr.Beschi (1700-1742) translated it into Latin.  However, the Tiruvalluva Maalai does not mention anything about Valluvar's birth, family, caste or background. S. Rajangam, “Iyodhee Thass Pandithar: A Pioneer in Dalit History and Literature.”, trad. According to Kandappan's grandson, noted Tamil historian and anti-case activist Iyodhee Thass Pandithar, Kandappan later complained to Ellis that "four new verses had been added to the original version of Thiruvalluvar Malai".  The text is divided into three books with aphoristic teachings on virtue (aram, dharma), wealth (porul, artha) and love (inbam, kama), respectively. "[i], The Kural has been widely praised within and outside India for its universal, non-denominational values. , a. , The Kural is one of the most reviewed of all works in Tamil literature, and almost every notable scholar has written exegesis or commentaries (explanation in prose or verse), known in Tamil as urai, on it. The text has been dated variously from 300 BCE to 5th century CE. ^ Compare this with Chapter 7 of the Tirukkural—the Kural chapter on bearing children. Nayagam who produced the earliest record of a non-Indian use of Thirukkural.  This statue is currently India's 25th tallest. numerous scholars have taken the task of translating the Kural into various , The first critical edition of the Tirukkaral based on manuscripts discovered in Hindu monasteries and private collections was published in 1861 by Arumuka Navalar – the Jaffna born Tamil scholar and Shaivism activist. 772). , i. viveutibus lenitatem et clementiam exercere dicetur? It is one of the 27 wells dug on the orders of Ellis in 1818, when Madras suffered a severe drinking water shortage. silver.". Leo Tolstoy was inspired by the concept of non-violence found in the Kural when he read a German version of the book, who in turn instilled the concept in Mahatma Gandhi through his A Letter to a Hindu when young Gandhi sought his guidance. " This is recommended by the Bhagavad Gita as well, which discusses and synthesizes the three dominant trends in Hinduism, namely, enlightenment-based renunciation, dharma-based householder life, and devotion-based theism, and this synthetic answer of the Gita recommends that one must resist the "either-or" view, and consider a "both-and" view.  Authors influenced by the Kural include Ilango Adigal, Seethalai Satthanar, Sekkilar, Kambar, Leo Tolstoy, Mahatma Gandhi, Albert Schweitzer, Vallalar, Monsieur Ariel, Constantius Joseph Beschi, Karl Graul, August Friedrich Caemmerer, Nathaniel Edward Kindersley, Francis Whyte Ellis, Charles E. Gover, George Uglow Pope, Vinoba Bhave, Alexander Piatigorsky, A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, and Yu Hsi. , By the end of the 20th century, there were about 24 translations of the Kural in English alone, by both native and non-native scholars, including those by V. V. S. Aiyar, K. M. Balasubramaniam, Shuddhananda Bharati, A. Chakravarti, M. S. Purnalingam Pillai, C. Rajagopalachari, P. S. Sundaram, V. R. Ramachandra Dikshitar, G. Vanmikanathan, Kasturi Srinivasan, S. N. Sriramadesikan, and K. R. Srinivasa Iyengar. While in Chapter 7 he asserts that the greatest gain men can obtain is by their learned children (Kural 61), Indian languages: Sanskrit, Hindi, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, Bengali, Marathi, Gujarati, and Urdu, Non-Indian languages: Burmese, Malay, Chinese, Fijian, Latin, French, German, Russian, Polish, Swedish, Thai, and English. (, Translations of Kural in different  Scholars consider these and all associated aspects of these hagiographic stories to be fiction and ahistorical, a feature common to "international and Indian folklore". The first French translation was brought about by an unknown author by about 1767 that went unnoticed. Of the world's languages, the Tamil language is very ancient, equal to that of Sanskrit and few have placed their origin and antiquity correctly. mögen [auch: gernhaben, lieben] [to press one's thumbs / thumb (for sb.)] كيف يكون احد رؤوفا ورحيما As of now, I The text also features a higher number of Sanskrit loan words compared with these older texts. Resume / CV Translation: English into German. This document has been generated from XSL (Extensible Stylesheet Language) source with RenderX XEP Formatter, version 3.6.1 Client Academic.  The name Thiruvalluvar was first mentioned in the later era text Tiruvalluva Maalai, a Shaivite Hindu text also of unclear date. There are also versions of Thirukkural in French by Monsieur Ariel and in German by Dr. Graul. of Ceylon” in which the Franciscan Missionary Fra Joam de Vila Conde, in a  The fourth aim, namely, salvation (moksha) is implicit in the last five chapters of Book I. In the early 16th century, the Shaiva Hindu community built a temple within the Ekambareeswara-Kamakshi (Shiva-Parvati) temple complex in Mylapore, Chennai, in honor of Tirukkuṛaḷ's author, Valluvar.  In January 2016, Chitravina N. Ravikiran set the entire 1330 verses to music in a record time of 16 hours. that the task of translating a literary work is like “. patRinai, yappatRai, katRaarut kaRRaa Sundaram. respects: Firstly, it does not have the backing of any religious community to Looking for Key Stage 3 translation? Translations of Tirukkural into [e] His mentioning of God Vishnu in couplets 610 and 1103 and Goddess Lakshmi in couplets 167, 408, 519, 565, 568, 616, and 617 suggests the Vaishnavite beliefs of Valluvar. The Kural has therefore been , k. ^ A stone inscription found on the walls of a well at the Periya Palayathamman temple at Royapettai indicates Ellis' regard for Valluvar. Here are two examples: patRuka patRatRaan  Its translations into European languages starting from the early 18th century brought it global fame.  Following are some of the instances where Valluvar employs contradictions to expound the virtues.  Child-rearing is central to the Confucian thought of procreation of humanity and the benevolence of society. Thank you!  S. Vaiyapuri Pillai derived his name from "valluvan" (a Paraiyar caste of royal drummers) and theorized that he was "the chief of the proclaiming boys analogous to a trumpet-major of an army". ", The Kural has historically been exalted by leaders of political, spiritual, social and virtually every other domain. According to Sanjeevi, the first translation of the work appeared in Malayalam (Kerala) in 1595. The first printed copy of the Thirukkural saw the light in 1831 thanks to Kandappan, the butler of George Harrington, a European Civil Servant possibly in the Madurai district.  According to Zvelebil, the text does not feature "true and great poetry" throughout the work, except, notably, in the third book, which deals with love and pleasure. Mayuram Vishwanatha Shastri set all the verses to music in the early 20th century. Kural 629: "He who never exulted in joy will not be depressed by sorrow. திருக்குறள் ஒரு தேசிய நூல் [Tirukkural: A National Book] (Pub. 'Thirukkural translation in German - English Reverso dictionary, see also 'thermonuklear',TH',Trinkhalm',Tierquäler', examples, definition, conjugation For example, S. R. Ranganathan, a librarian of University of Madras during the British rule, discovered a Malayalam translation copied in year 777 of the Malayalam calendar, a manuscript that Zvelebil dates to late 16th century.  In their isolated form, that is, when removed from the context of the 10-couplet chapter, the couplets lose their structural meaning but retain the "wise saying, moral maxim" sense.  The 102 remaining loan words from Sanskrit are "not negligible", and some of the teachings in the Kural text, according to Zvelebil, are "undoubtedly" based on the then extant Sanskrit works such as the Arthashastra and Manusmriti (also called the Manavadharmasastra).  Considered one of the greatest works on ethics and morality, it is known for its universality and secular nature. his book on Tiruvalluvar (Sahitya Academi) mentions about Dr. Xavier S. Thani No.  Valluvar extols rain next only to God for it provides food and serves as the basis of a stable economic life by aiding in agriculture, which Valluvar asserts as the most important economic activity later in Book II of the Kural text.  There are also accounts claiming that, during his return journey, Valluvar sat under a tree whose shadow sat still over him and did not move the entire day, he killed a demon, and many more. ], has  Just like Christian missionaries during the colonial era cast the work in their own Christian premises, phrases and concepts, some Dravidianists of the contemporary era reinterpret and cast the work to further their own goals and socio-political values. , The author seldom shows any concern as to what similes and superlatives he used earlier while writing on other subjects, purposely allowing for some repetition and mild contradictions in ideas one can find in the Kural text. The Lun Yu says, "Therefore an enlightened ruler will regulate his people’s livelihood so as to ensure that, above they have enough to serve their parents and below they have enough to support their wives and children.  Authors who came after the composition of the Tirukkural similarly extensively quoted and borrowed from the Tirukkural.  The temple was extensively renovated in the 1970s. His commentary closely follows the Kural's teachings, while reflecting both the cultural values and textual values of the 13th- and 14th-century Tamil Nadu. Abstinence from Flesh (Vegetarianism) (, Chapter 34.  Gandhi then took to studying the Kural in prison, which eventually culminated in his starting the non-violence movement to fight against the British. , The first, and incomplete, English translations were made by N. E. Kindersley in 1794 and then by Francis Whyte Ellis in 1812. The.  The Tirukkural teaches that the ministers and people who work in public office should lead an ethical and moral life. What makes them so popular?  The three parts that the Kural is divided into, namely, aṟam (virtue), poruḷ (wealth) and inbam (love), aiming at attaining veedu (ultimate salvation), follow, respectively, the four foundations of Hinduism, namely, dharma, artha, kama and moksha. Of these, only the works of Manakkudavar, Paridhi, Kaalingar, Pari Perumal, and Parimelalhagar are available today. (, Tirukkural translations in different languages (பிற மொழிகளில் குறள்), http://www.gurjari.net/ico/Mystica/html/shrimad_bhagavad_geeta.htm, http://spp.pinyin.info/abstracts/spp020_lao_tzu.html, http://www.theosociety.org/pasadena/dhamma/dham-hp.htm, http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/lao-tzu/works/tao-te-ching/index.htm, http://www.answers.com/topic/tao-te-ching-1, http://www.classicallibrary.org/laotse/tao/index.htm, http://www2.kenyon.edu/Depts/Religion/Fac/Adler/Writings/TaoTeChing-talk.pdf. Verse 251:  This form, which Zvelebil calls "a marvel of brevity and condensation," is closely connected with the structural properties of the Tamil language and has historically presented extreme difficulties to its translators.  The work is traditionally grouped under the Eighteen Lesser Texts series of the late Sangam works, known in Tamil as Patiṉeṇkīḻkaṇakku. Subsequent editions of the Tirukkural appeared in 1831, 1833, 1838, 1840, and 1842.  According to Zvelebil, Valluvar's treatment of the chapters on moral vegetarianism and non-killing reflects the Jain precepts. Mental Disturbance Caused by the Lady's Beauty (, Chapter 111. The Kural differs from the above sacred texts in two In 1967, the Tamil Nadu government passed an order stating that the image of Valluvar should be present in all government offices across the state of Tamil Nadu. The commentaries by Thirumalaiyar and Mallar are lost completely. However, Drew translated only 630 couplets, and the remaining were translated by John Lazarus, a native missionary. Assertion of the strength of Virtue (, Chapter 15. Each kural or couplet contains exactly seven words, known as cirs, with four cirs on the first line and three on the second, following the kural metre. For example, the term Thirukkural is a cir formed by combining the two words thiru and kuṛaḷ. . [k][l] In the late 19th century, the South Indian saint Vallalar taught the Kural's message. Viewing the Kural in all languages. M. S. Purnalingam Pillai. Yandex.Translate is a mobile and web service that translates words, phrases, whole texts, and entire websites from Arabic into German. S. Maharajan in  It soon became a popular and the standard portrait of the poet. , According to Thomas Manninezhath – a theology scholar who grew up in South India, the Tirukkural is believed by the natives to reflect Advaita Vedanta philosophy and teaches an "Advaitic way of life". " According to K. M. Munshi, "Thirukkural is a treatise par excellence on the art of living. Zvelebil states that an additional few have uncertain etymology and that future studies may prove those to be Dravidian. The best known among these are the commentaries by Parimelalhagar, Kaalingar, and Manakkudavar. " E. S. Ariel, who translated and published the third part of the Kural to French in 1848, called it "a masterpiece of Tamil literature, one of the highest and purest expressions of human thought. Acting after Right Consideration (, Chapter 70. , c. ^ The Valluvar Year is obtained by adding 31 years to the present Gregorian year. " Zakir Hussain, former President of India, said, "Thirukkural is a treasure house of worldly knowledge, ethical guidance and spiritual wisdom. The temple shikhara (spire) above the sanctum shows scenes of Hindu life and deities, along with Valluvar reading his couplets to his wife. Valluvar's text can be interpreted and maneuvered in other ways, states Cutler. Comment celui qui , In 1818, the then Collector of Madras Francis Whyte Ellis issued a gold coin bearing Valluvar's image. In 1865, his Latin translation of the Kural text, along with commentaries in Simple Tamil, was posthumously published. Tirukkural (. The diction and grammar of the Kural, and Valluvar's indebtedness to some earlier Sanskrit sources, suggest that he lived after the "early Tamil bardic poets," but before Tamil bhakti poets era. When compared to the Kural which has 1330 cryptic couplets of en. religious debate at the court of Bhuvanaika Bahu of Kotte, Ceylon (1521-1551) Kamil V. Zvelebil's solution to  Unlike Manusmriti, the Tirukurral does not give importance to castes or any dynasty of rulers and ministers.  Incidentally, Valluvar differed from Confucius in two respects. Buddhist sacred texts, must have also seen several translations. , (Kural 543; John Lazarus 1885, & A. K. Ananthanathan 1994). Not cited the Kural in support of the doctrines which he preached: The first translation of the Kural into a European The 19th-century Christian missionary George Uglow Pope, for example, claimed that Valluvar must have lived in the 9th century CE, come in contact with Christian teachers such as Pantaenus of Alexandria, imbibed Christian ideas and peculiarities of Alexandrian teachers and then wrote the "wonderful Kurral" with an "echo of the 'Sermon of the Mount'.  Among the ten medieval commentaries, scholars have found spelling, homophonic, and other minor textual variations in a total of 900 couplets, including 217 couplets in Book I, 487 couplets in Book II, and 196 couplets in Book III. In essence, however, in Chapter 33 he crowns non-killing as the foremost of all virtues, pushing even the virtue of veracity to the second place (Kural 323).  Another states he was an outcaste, born to a Pariah woman and a Brahmin father.  An army has a duty to kill in battle, and a king must execute criminals for justice. love for employing repetitious words within the same couplet. The Tamil inscription on his grave makes note of his commentary of Tirukkural.. , Scholars compare the teachings in the Tirukkural with those in other ancient thoughts such as the Confucian sayings in Lun Yu, Hitopadesa, Panchatantra, Manusmriti, Tirumandiram, Book of Proverbs in the Bible, sayings of the Buddha in Dhammapada, and the ethical works of Persian origin such as Gulistan and Bustan, in addition to the holy books of various religions. In the long inscription Ellis praises Valluvar and uses a couplet from the Tirukkural to explain his actions during the drought.  Modern composers who have tuned the Kural couplets include Mayuram Viswanatha Sastri and Ramani Bharadwaj. This page was last edited on 24 January 2021, at 08:47. Tiru is an honorific Tamil term that corresponds to the universally Indian, Sanskrit term sri meaning "holy, sacred, excellent, honorable, and beautiful. languages is true, then some of these languages might have also been covered. Kandappan had them delivered to Francis Whyte Ellis, a British civil servant in the Madras Presidency and a scholar of Tamil and Sanskrit who had established a Tamil sangam (academy) in Madras in 1825 and asked Tamil enthusiasts to “bring to him ancient Tamil manuscripts for publication“. However, he translated only the first two books, viz., virtue and wealth, leaving out the book on love because its erotic and sexual nature was deemed by him to be inappropriate for a Christian missionary. Historian K. K. Pillay assigned it to the early 1st century CE. , The Kural text was first included in the school syllabus by the colonial era British government. Though A.F. translations in verse, but the Kural has been translated only in prose in  According to Indian philosophical tradition, one must remain unattached to wealth and possessions, which can either be transcended or sought with detachment and awareness, and pleasure needs to be fulfilled consciously and without harming anyone. The concept of rebirth or many births for the same soul is contrary to Christian principle and belief. English and other Indian languages – some aspects. , The Kural text begins with an invocation of God and then praises the rain for being the vitalizer of all life forms on earth. 100. a feat achieved , The Kural remains one of the most influential Tamil texts admired by generations of scholars. So without further ado, let’s start exploring some pig-related, other-animal-related and just plain funny German sayings. Many of these authors have translated the work into their languages.  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